Dwellings per km2
Dwelling density measures how many dwellings there are in a given amount of land. The graph shows the rate for every km2.
Statistics Canada: Census 2001-2006; NHS 2011
The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.
More detail about this indicator can be found in Peg’s 2017 Wellbeing Report on the Natural and Built Environment: http://www.mypeg.ca/sites/www.mypeg.ca/files/uploads/AnnualWinnipegWellnessReport2017.pdf
Rationale and Connections
Dwelling density is an indicator of land use, and is a key descriptor of the built environment. The built environment is strongly influenced by dwelling density: low densities generally require higher energy use, use more land that could be used for other purposes (e.g., agriculture) and have higher infrastructure costs. High densities can result in heavy loads on infrastructure and a concentration of pollutants (e.g., leading to poor air quality).
Measurement and Limitations
This indicator measures the total number of occupied private dwellings per km^2 populated neighbourhoods. Data from 2006 and earlier was part of the long-form of the Canadian Census. In 2011, the long-form was cancelled, and this question was made part of the National Household Survey (NHS). Though the questions are comparable, the NHS was a voluntary survey (with a 76% response rate in Manitoba), whereas the Census long-form was mandatory (with a 94% response rate). Though data quality is lower (worse) in the NHS, it remains comparable to previous years.
Statistics Canada (2013). http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/index-eng.cfm
Multiple Risk Factors for Pregnancy
Multiple risk factors measures the percentage of pregnancies where there are three or more factors that put families at risk (e.g., alcohol or tobacco use, mental health issues, financial challenges, mothers who have not completed high school).
Data for this indicator is retrieved from Families First Screening and provided by Healthy Child Manitoba (www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/ )
Rationale and Connections
This indicator is a signpost for the health of Winnipeg’s future generations. Pregnancies with one or more of the Families First risk factors have a higher chance of long term effects on the development and health of the child (WRHA, 2014). The WRHA Community Health Report considers pregnant mothers with more than three risk factors to be at high risk.
Measurement and Limitations
Pregnancies with three or more risk factors measures the percentage of pregnancies where there are three or more factors that put families at risk.
The purpose of the Families First Screen form is to identify appropriate supports and challenges for families. Through this system, public health nurses can connect pregnant mothers with social, mental health and financial support systems available to them.
The Families First Program risk factors are related to child development and health. Taken from Healthy Child Manitoba’s Families First Screening, the five factors include mothers’ tobacco use, alcohol use, rate of depression and anxiety, educational attainment less than high school, and financially difficult socioeconomic status during pregnancy.
The Families First Screening data only includes data for mothers who have agreed to participate in the Families First Program from 2003 to the present date. It is estimated that 83 percent of all births in Manitoba are currently screened (MCHP, 2015).
The data is collected within a week of a Public Health Nurse discharging a newborn from the hospital using the Families First Screening Form. This form includes information such as ethnic background, alcohol and drug use, history of anxiety disorders and depression, child abuse, criminal involvement, education and the child’s physical and medical characteristics (MCHP, 2015). Questions about drug and alcohol use by pregnant mothers are presented separately to the rest of the data with detailed questions regarding alcohol consumption.
Previous to 2003, this information was collected under the Baby First Screen.
The Families First Screening Form can be viewed online at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/edi/pancan/pres_ffs.pdf
More information on the Families First Screening Program can be found at http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/familiesfirst/index.html
Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). 2015. Families First Screen. Retrieved from http://umanitoba.ca/faculties/health_sciences/medicine/units/community_health_sciences/departmental_units/mchp/resources/repository/descriptions.html?ds=FamiliesFirst
Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). (2014). Community Health Assessment 2014. Retrieved from:http://www.wrha.mb.ca/research/cha2014/files/CHAReport2014.pdf
Dwelling Density Sustainable Development Goals
11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more. At their best, cities have enabled people to advance socially and economically.
However, many challenges exist to maintaining cities in a way that continues to create jobs and prosperity while not straining land and resources. Common urban challenges include congestion, lack of funds to provide basic services, a shortage of adequate housing and declining infrastructure.
The challenges cities face can be overcome in ways that allow them to continue to thrive and grow, while improving resource use and reducing pollution and poverty. The future we want includes cities of opportunities for all, with access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation and more.